Symmetric scales are constructed when the octave is divided into equal parts.
The 12 notes may be divided into 2, 3, 4, 6 or 12 equal parts:
Before we go on, remember that one of the accepted conditions for a series of notes to be deemed a "scale" is that we should not have any intervals larger than a 2nd... (see: What Is A Scale ?). More on this later.
Let's take a look at those equal divisions now:
1. When the octave is divided in 12 equals parts, we get a Chromatic Scale. This is a series of minor 2nds.
Using C as Root we have: C C# D D# E F F# G G# A A# B (C)
2. When the octave is divided in 6 equals parts, we get a Whole-Tone Scale. This is a series of major 2nds.
Using C as Root again: C D E F# G# Bb (C)
3. When the octave is divided in 4 equals parts, we get a Diminished 7th arpeggio. This is a series of augmented 2nds (those happen to also be minor 3rds).
From C root: C Eb Gb A (C)
This series could actually fit our description of a scale, since all of the intervals are Augmented seconds ! However, everyone will agree that it definitely makes more sense to call it an arpeggio (a sequence of minor 3rds).
Now, if we precede each one of the notes of the arpeggio with its leading-tone, we construct a Diminished Scale.
From C root: C D Eb F Gb Ab A B (C)
4. When the octave is divided in 3 equals parts, we get an Augmented Triad arpeggio. This is a series of major 3rds. Definitely not a scale at this point, but clearly an arpeggio.
From C root: C E G# (C)
But, if we do what we just did with the Diminished 7th arpeggio and precede each note with a half-step, we now have what we call an Augmented Scale.
From C root: C D# E G G# B (C)
5. When the octave is divided in 2 equals parts, we simply get the interval of a Tritone.
From C root: C Gb (C)
We can here as well add the half-step below each note and get the following series:
C F Gb B (C)
Not sure what to name it though... a CsusMaj7(b5) arpeggio ? Sid Jacobs, in his "Complete Book of Jazz Guitar Lines & Phrases" refers to it as a "Tetratonic Tritone Scale" and shows several lines and voicing derived from it. You may want to check it out.
Here's a Summary:
(or another way to look at the same thing...)
1. a series of m2 will create a Chromatic scale (the octave is divided equally into 12 notes).
2. a series of M2 will form a Whole-Tone scale (the octave is divided equally into 6 notes).
3. a series of A2 will generate... a Diminished Arpeggio ! (the octave is divided equally into 4 notes).
Now we can also combine 2 types of 2nds. Let's start with the more common ones:
1. M2 and m2 will give us a Diminished Scale.
2. m2 and M2 will be the "other" Diminished Scale, sometimes called Auxiliary-Diminished.
3. A2 and m2 will be referred to as an Augmented Scale.
4. m2 and A2 will be deemed the "other" Augmented Scale, which following a previous logic could be then named Auxiliary-Augmented.
5. M2 and A2: using C as a Root, we have:
C D F G Bb (C)
This will be seen as a Bb Major Pentatonic Scale (or G Minor Pentatonic).
OK, now that we had our little fun, let's see if we can combine all 3 types of 2nds. We will again use C as the Root for each sequence.
1. A2 M2 m2
C Eb F Gb A B (C)
2. A2 m2 M2
C D# E F# A Bb (C)
3. M2 A2 m2
C D F Gb Ab B (C)
4. M2 m2 A2
C D Eb F# G# A (C)
5. m2 A2 M2
C Db E F# G Bb (C)
6. m2 M2 A2
C Db Eb F# G A (C)
All those scales are unnamed Hexatonics (6-note scales). Note that they all have the b5.
Many combinations of 2nds are possible within one octave, and you can actually construct some interesting symmetrical "groupings". The recipe is really simple:
If we divide the octave in 2 halves, the following template will be constant:
C F# (C)
Just insert any note between the C root and the F# (the Tritone). You then want to insert the same interval between the F# and the C octave.
Example: let's insert an E between C and F#. The interval is of a M3. We then have to insert a note that is a M3 up from the F#:
C E F# Bb (C)
More notes may be inserted. Let's now add a chromatic step between E and F#. The same interval duplicated will be a chromatic step between Bb and C.
Here is the new series:
C E F F# Bb B (C)
Let's try now a D between the C and F (a whole-step after the Root). The same interval duplicated will be a whole-step after the Tritone:
C D E F F# G# Bb B (C)
Many possibilities, as you can see.
You can also use the same approach, but divide the octave in 3 equal parts instead of 2 halves. You can start with only using 2nds in your series, but eventually try with various intervals. Whether or not you want to refer to those things as "scales" is really up to you !
If you are curious, you may want to take a look at composer Olivier Messiaen's Modes of Limited Transposition
also known as "Messiaen Modes". Messiaen went through all the possibilities, and selected 7 of them, simply referred to as 1st Mode, 2nd Mode, etc.
More math to conclude:
There are 2 Whole-Tone scales (in life...) each with 6 possible roots.
There are 3 Diminished scales (in life...) each with 4 possible roots.
There are 4 Augmented scales (in life...) each with 3 possible roots.
There are 6 Tritones with 2 possible roots.
Oh, and there is also only 1 Chromatic scale, with 12 possible roots...
IF YOU LIKED THIS ARTICLE, PLEASE CONSIDER MAKING A SMALL DONATION :-)
YOU CAN CLICK THE PAYPAL BUTTON BELOW AND ENTER THE DESIRED AMOUNT FOR YOUR CONTRIBUTION-- THANK YOU !
I am available for private lessons on SKYPE or FACETIME for more information on this topic, or on anything related to Jazz Guitar, Improvisation or Music Theory.
Click here for details.
See all topics from the Various Thoughts page.
Go to the Home page.
All Content © Bruno Pelletier-Bacquaert 2005 - 2015